Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Origin of Samuel Clemens as Mark Twain

Author Samuel Langhorne Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain and a couple other pseudonyms during his writing career. Pen names have been used by authors throughout the centuries for purposes such as disguising their gender, shielding their personal anonymity and family associations, or even to cover up past legal troubles. However, Samuel Clemens didnt appear to choose Mark Twain for any of those reasons. Origin of Mark Twain In Life on the Mississippi,  Mark Twain writes about Captain Isaiah Sellers, a riverboat pilot who wrote under the pseudonym Mark Twain, The old gentleman was not of literary turn or capacity, but he used to jot down brief paragraphs of plain practical information about the river, and sign them MARK TWAIN, and give them to the New Orleans Picayune.  They related to the stage and condition of the river, and were accurate and valuable; and thus far, they contained no poison. The term mark twain is for a measured river depth of 12 feet or two fathoms, the depth that was safe for a steamboat to pass. Sounding the river for depth was essential as an unseen obstruction could result in tearing a hole in the vessel and sinking it. Clemens aspired to be a river pilot, which was a well-paying position. He paid $500 to study for two years as an apprentice steamboat pilot and earned his pilots license. He worked as a pilot until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. How Samuel Clemens Decided to Use the Pen Name After a brief two weeks as a Confederate enlistee, he joined his brother Orion in Nevada Territory where Orion served as secretary to the governor. He tried mining but failed and instead took up as a journalist for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. This is when he began to use the pen name of Mark Twain. The original user of the pseudonym died in 1869. In Life on the Mississippi,  Mark Twain says: I was a fresh new journalist, and needed a nom de guerre; so I confiscated the ancient mariners discarded one, and have done my best to make it remain what it was in his hands—a sign and symbol and warrant that whatever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified truth; how I have succeeded, it would not be modest in me to say. Further, in his autobiography, Clemens noted that he wrote several satires of the original pilots postings that were published and caused embarrassment. As a result, Isaiah Sellers stopped publishing his reports. Clemens was penitent for this later in life. Other Pen Names and Pseudonyms Before 1862, Clemens signed humorous sketches as Josh. Samuel Clemens used the name Sieur Louis de Conte for Joan of Arc (1896). He also used the pseudonym Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass for three humorous pieces he contributed to Keokuk Post. Sources Fatout, Paul. â€Å"Mark Twains Nom de Plume.† American Literature, vol. 34, no. 1, 1962, p. 1., doi:10.2307/2922241.Twain, Mark, et al. Autobiography of Mark Twain. University of California Press, 2010.Twain, Mark. Life on the Mississippi. Tauchnitz, 1883.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Mise-en-Scene in In the Mood for Love Free Essay Example, 1500 words

In the Mood for Love may be using the commercial genre of the melodrama at its core, but the film structure itself is highly stylized; even the narrative receives an art-house treatment. That said, Wong is fond of creating moody atmospheres through a combination of mise-en-scene, cinematography and his own directing style. The framing serves to magnify the isolation that the characters feel, but also the particularities and emotional reactions of his actors, especially Maggie Cheung s. The cramped apartments and narrow streets that see the to and fro of the protagonists serves to highlight the claustrophobia of their actual environment, which in turn highlights the loneliness of their existence. At the same time, the same cramped spaces inspire a sense of intimacy: for instance, the constricted stairway which leads to the street noodle stand often forces Chow and So to move well within each other s personal space whenever they happen to cross each other one going down, the other re turning to their apartment. At times, several planes will come into focus or shift from one another, drawing attention to a character or to an action which is occurring in either the foreground or the background these shifts do not always bear relevance to the plot, but are aesthetically pleasing and fit the mood of a given scene. We will write a custom essay sample on Mise-en-Scene in 'In the Mood for Love' or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Their absence in the scene helps in fulfilling 2 main aims: the first, is to free the 2 of them from their respective partners; they are persons who are in existence in a different dimension, both physically and emotionally. The second aim, it shifts the attention entirely on the characters that have been cheated upon, focusing on their reaction to the betrayal and how they deal with it.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ecological niche From Wikipedia Free Essays

Ecological niche From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Black smokers create ecological niches with their unusual environment In ecology, a niche (CanE, UK /? ni / or US /? n? t? /)[1] is a term describing the way of life of a species. Each species is thought to have a separate, unique niche. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (e. We will write a custom essay sample on Ecological niche From Wikipedia or any similar topic only for you Order Now g. , by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (e. . , limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey). [2] The majority of species exist in a standard ecological niche. A premier example of a non-standard niche filling species is the flightless, ground-dwelling kiwi bird of New Zealand, which exists on worms, and other ground creatures, and lives its life in a mammal niche. Island biogeography can help explain island species and associated unfilled niches. Contents[hide] * 1 Grinnellian niche * 2 Eltonian niche * 3 Hutchinsonian niche * 4 Parameters * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links| [edit] Grinnellian niche The word â€Å"niche† is derived from the Middle French word nicher, meaning to nest. The term was coined by the naturalist Joseph Grinnell in 1917, in his paper â€Å"The niche relationships of the California Thrasher. â€Å"[3] The Grinnellian niche concept embodies the idea that the niche of a species is determined by the habitat in which it lives. In other words, the niche is the sum of the habitat requirements that allow a species to persist and produce offspring. For example, the behavior of the California Thrasher is consistent with the chaparral habitat it lives in—it breeds and feeds in the underbrush and escapes from its predators by shuffling from underbrush to underbrush. This perspective of niche allows for the existence of ecological equivalents and also empty niches. For example, the Anolis lizards of the Greater Antilles are a rare example of convergent evolution, adaptive radiation, and the existence of ecological equivalents: the Anolis lizards evolved in similar microhabitats ndependently of each other and resulted in the same ecomorphs across all four islands. [edit] Eltonian niche In 1927 Charles Sutherland Elton, a British ecologist, gave the first working definition of the niche concept. He is credited with saying: â€Å"[W]hen an ecologist says ‘there goes a badger,’ he should include in his thoughts some definite idea of the animal’s place in the community to which it belongs, just as if he had s aid, ‘there goes the vicar. ‘†[4] The Eltonian niche encompasses the idea that the niche is the role a species plays in a community, rather than a habitat. edit] Hutchinsonian niche Squirrels in public parks may have a different ecological niche than those with less human contact. The Hutchinsonian niche views niche as an n-dimensional hypervolume, where the dimensions are environmental conditions and the resources that define the requirements of an individual or a species to practise â€Å"its† way of life. The niche concept was popularized by the zoologist G. Evelyn Hutchinson in 1957. [5] Hutchinson wanted to know why there are so many different types of organisms in any one habitat. An organism free of interference from other species could use the full range of conditions (biotic and abiotic) and resources in which it could survive and reproduce which is called its fundamental niche. However, as a result of pressure from, and interactions with, other organisms (i. e. inter-specific competition) species are usually forced to occupy a niche that is narrower than this, and to which they are mostly highly adapted. This is termed the realized niche. The ecological niche has also been termed by G. Evelyn Hutchinson a â€Å"hypervolume. † This term defines the multi-dimensional space of resources (e. . , light, nutrients, structure, etc. ) available to (and specifically used by) organisms. The term adaptive zone was coined by the paleontologist, George Gaylord Simpson, and refers to a set of ecological niches that may be occupied by a group of species that exploit the same resources in a similar manner. (Simpson, 1944; After Root, 1967. )[citation needed] Hutchi nson’s â€Å"niche† (a description of the ecological space occupied by a species) is subtly different from the â€Å"niche† as defined by Grinnell (an ecological role, that may or may not be actually filled by a species—see vacant niches). Different species cannot occupy the same niche[citation needed]. A niche is a very specific segment of ecospace occupied by a single species. Species can however share a ‘mode of life’ or ‘autecological strategy’ which are broader definitions of ecospace. [6] For example, Australian grasslands species, though different from those of the Great Plains grasslands, exhibit similar modes of life. [7] Once a niche is left vacant, other organisms can fill that position. For example, the niche that was left vacant by the extinction of the tarpan has been filled by other animals (in particular a small horse breed, the konik). Also, when plants and animals are introduced into a new environment, they have the potential to occupy or invade the niche or niches of native organisms, often outcompeting the indigenous species. Introduction of non-indigenous species to non-native habitats by humans often results in biological pollution by the exotic or invasive species. The mathematical representation of a species’ fundamental niche in ecological space, and its subsequent projection back into geographic space, is the domain of niche modelling. [8] What is the ecological niche of a Slater? In:Insects [Edit categories] Answer: the slater’s lives in dark places. uptake water by eatting food Rate This Answer Upper Hutt College Year 13 Biology Slater Study Achievement standard: biology 3. 1 Introduction to experiment: In this investigation of the ecological niche of the woodlouse, I chose to experiment the amount of soil moisture that the slaters tend to prefer. I chose this aspect, as moisture is a vital part in the survival of this small creature. Internet sources provided information of the woodlice that shows that they are from crustacean descent and formerly aquatic even though now they are terrestrial rather than water dwelling. Slaters are generally found in moist, dark places with decomposing plant matter. Enter Slater Diagram From two diagrams it is shown the area of the slaters lungs are near the rear end of the woodlouse and located inside the pleopod, these are where the gills are hiding. The Slater is a creature that receives its oxygen through moisture in its surroundings, which is why I chose to do an experiment on moisture and in which amount of water is most suited to their survival and not a threat. The Woodlouse also has no waxy layer on its body which means desiccation is easy compared to other bugs, this is another reason why the slater need moisture in its environment. Aim: The aim of this investigation is to experiment using woodlice and test on which amount of soil moisture they prefer. Hypothesis: I believe that the more soil moisture there is, the more slaters will be found in that area. Independent Variable: The independent variable of this experiment will be the amount of water that is to be added to the soil. This variable will be measured using millilitres and a measuring cup. The range of values for this will be: 0mls, 25mls, 50mls, 75mls and 100mls. To keep this experiment as fair and accurate as possible, the water will be the exact amount by myself getting down to eye level and pouring the water in little amounts to get the precise amount of water needed. Dependent Variable: How to cite Ecological niche From Wikipedia, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Examining Moderating Effects Of Knowledge -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Examining Moderating Effects Of Knowledge? Answer: Introduction Project management can be considered as an application of the methods, processes, skills, knowledge and experience to achieve the objectives of the project. In general, it can be stated that a project can be considered unique and undertaken to achieve certain objectives, which are planned. This could be easily be defined within the terms of outcomes, outputs or benefits. A project is termed as successful if it archives the objectives about the criteria of acceptance within an agreed budget and timescale. The concept, which distinguishes normal management with project management, is that the project management have a finite timespan and a final delivery. Project management needs technical skills and certain type of people with management skills and good awareness of the business framework. Nearly all small projects and large projects exhibit the characteristics of complicity. It can be stated that the complexity in a project management process can be due to the factor of the risk fact ors, which are associated with it (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). The main aim of the report is to take into consideration the concept of the complex project management. The reason, which is applicable behind a project, is termed as a complex project are majorly discussed in the report. In a complex project scenario, the role of the project manager is very much important. Few of the case studies are also taken into consideration in the report, which puts forward the aspect, which is related to complex project. Concept of complex project management The concept of complex project have many parameters, variables involved into it. Complexity of a project cannot be defined as the size of the project; it can be seen in most of the large project scenarios the complexity factor does not exist. If the different parts of the project can work independently without interacting, it cannot be termed as a complex project. In this concept, the best practice that should be followed is making the different teams work together parallel without taking much concern on what other team are working upon. The task is executed independent. Secondly, it can be stated that complexity cannot be same as project risk and uncertainty. Preparing for the factor of uncertainty can be considered to be very much crucial in the aspect for example if the project in proper condition takes 4 days to execute and on the other hand 9 days to execute in worst conditions, having a bugger plan is very much important. The factor of the complexity is directly related with th e concept of interactions. It is well known that the issue which with the complexity can be caused by some technical system of interacting physical components. However, the sources of complexity may come from various sectors, which are stated below: Technical complexity: The concept of the interaction related to the components of the system may cause inter dependencies among the various tasks in the project. External complexity: The project in many cases may touch multiple market segments and can be influenced by the factor of regulation in multiple domain and regions. Actor complexity: Many of the stakeholders who are interested in the project may have different dimensions and different wanting relating to the project, which may be contradictory. In this case, one stakeholder can influence another stakeholder. The sources, which are related to the complexity, can be various, uncertain and very much dynamic. The difficulty, which is faced in defining the concept of complexity, can be minimized through the identification of the key drivers, which are related to it. Key drivers definition can be considered not so easy taking into consideration field, which are related to the project management or in any other domain. The main problem, which is faced in this scenario, is the lack of agreement on the drivers of complexity and understanding, which is very little between the drivers. The environment and the context of the project factors, which change the drivers of the project. Considering any project the complexity of the project can be composed of many complexities for example distinction, which can lead to efficient management of the project. Complex project The project usually have a large number of systems that need to be matched and put together or matched with a number of interfaces. This type of project usually contain many details relating to how the project should be executed. The project requires efficient control, coordinating and monitoring from the start to end of the project. These type of project deals with intricacy, which can be very much difficult to specify onto how to reach the project goals and the time, which would be involved in it. The project require logical link due to the factor that a complex project usually encounters revision which is made periodically and with the factor of interrelations between the different activities it becomes difficult to update the schedule successfully in an efficient manner. Environment The concept of project environment mainly includes the latest state of art technology in which the project are based upon. The factors, which can be included in the scenario, are social, economic and political setting. These factors affect the organizing, planning, staffing and the concept of directing which is mainly directed and is the responsibility of the project manager. These environmental aspects represent a set of complex inter- dependent relationships, which directly and constantly react with the project as it is brought into reality. It can be stated here at almost all projects impact the environment in some way or the other and this can be true for infrastructure projects. Therefore, in order to make a project successful all these factors should be taken into consideration. The above stated factors can change during the projects execution project. This is due to the factor if the project takes a number of years to complete and is brought in the phases of on stream. This majorly translates into a high degree of risk, which is uncertain about the surrounding of the project because of the external environment. The environment in each and every project us not the same. The project environment is likely to be determined by three considerations namely: The manner of the application and the technology. The service and the product, which is result of the project. The physical location of the project. Properties When relating to the properties of a project management system, which are termed as complex it can be stated that difficult project could not be termed as complex project. There are many factors which are involved in this scenario that a project can be stated as complex. The following points would explain what are the properties related to the project being complex: Numerous moving part: Many of the projects have multiple work streams and strands, which makes them complex. The project have multiple tasks in hand whose proper execution could be a problem. Project timeline: Project timeline can be considered as one of the most vital aspect in any project management scenario. Short timelines and immovable dates can make the project complex. There can be many factors, which can make the timeline of the project difficult to reach for example unavailability of the developers when relating to software development project. In some cases, it can be seen that in order to reach the time constraints the projects quality are compromised. Involvement of many stakeholders and team: Complexity in the concept of the project can arise due to the involvement of more people. This can also be from the end of the customer where there are more than one stakeholders. These stakeholders are involved in the concept of the project. There can also be a mix group of supplier Budget and other constraints: During the initiation of the project, the budget of the project is taken into consideration. If the budget of the project is not taken into consideration or not meet it can lead to increase in the complexity. The budget of the project can affect the organization as well as the stakeholders. The organization is liable to be answerable to the stakeholders about why the budget constraints are not meet. Project manager role The tools, which are related to the concept of the complex project, can be helpful in this type of project management scenarios (Lientz and Rea 2016). In this case, the project managers play an important role based on the past knowledge. They decide how to proceed with the project and what approach should be used for the project and the best time to use them. The tools, which can be used, are stated below: Work breakdown Structure The main purpose of the Work breakdown Structure can be helpful in planning the project by means of breaking down the project into different parts. This is mainly done to make the project more manageable and smaller to work with. WBS provides a task in the form of detailed list, which is to be performed in the project. This facilitates in delivery better scheduling, costing and resource planning for the project. The concept of the Cost breakdown structure lists each item, which is classified, and its expenditure for the project in order to get more detailed estimation relating to cost. The benefits, which are related to the use of WBS, are: Can be helpful in scheduling and sequencing of the project of different events, which improves the effectiveness of how the time is calculated. For example, the most efficient sequence, which can be used to accomplish activity, can be understood. Can be used to delegate and allocate responsibility to directly accomplish different activities or task, e.g. greater accountability through better control. Improves resource efficiency and planning of how the consumption of the resources should be done for example accurate forecast of the project staffing to save cost. It can be used for the basics of financial exception reporting for example actual allowance of the budget and forecasting the cost of project accurately. Can be used for the purpose of management of risk for example identify risk as an ongoing process for monitoring risk, which are related to the project. Gantt chart A Gantt chart can be considered as a horizontal bar, which can be used for project scheduling. Over time, each block represents an activity. The actual performance is recorded in real time, which is compared with the estimated time. This process is very much essential for achieving completion of the project. Taking into consideration an IT project the Gantt chart comprise of start data, end date and duration of each of the task. The following pints states why the concept of Gantt chart is used as a tool: It can be utilized for planning of the time scale of the project. Time scale in any project is very much vital as if the time is not matched it can affect the overall working of the project. It can be applied for the estimating the resources which are required for the project. It represents a graphical representation of the schedule of task which has to be completed It does not work for complex project it mainly suits situation where the tasks or activity are small (De Leoz and Petter 2014). Critical path analysis (CPA) or network analysis Taking into consideration projects, which are lengthy, and complex the Gantt chart does not work well. In large project a high factor of high interdependency between the various tasks do exist. In this case, it can be stated that a task cannot start until other task in the queue are completed (Weiss, Newell and Swan 2017). The concept of Gantt chart are less desirable due to the factor that it does not display or indicate the interdependencies. The network analysis can directly display the concept more logically involving timing and sequence of each of the activity related to the project. The task communicate independently and more effectively for complex and large projects. The following points states why the concept of Critical Path analysis can be used as a tool: The interdependent relationship, which exist among different activity in a project, is clearly stated. Effective management of time can be achieved from the concept of good visual communication. Arranges activity and tasks into a sequence, which is optimum relating to the different events in the project. This allows the project to be completed in a more efficient manner and within the time framework. The time, which is related to the elapsed time or estimated time, can be calculated very easily. It highlights the float time relating to all the activity of the project for example the amount of time, which a task can slip from the estimated time. Each activity has a slip time, which is involved into it. This is due to the factor that each of the task has to be completed within the completion time, which is planned; otherwise, the elapsed time, which is related to the project, will not be achieved easily (Ahern, Leavy and Byrne 2014). PERT (Project Evaluation and review technique) The technique, which is related to the PERT helps in the process of estimation of the project (Serra, C.E.M. and Kunc 2015). This process can involve any sort of uncertainty, which can be seen during the process of predicting the task duration. In this technique, the project manager can estimate the worst, best and most probable time duration relating to the activity and then take into consideration the average completion time. The advantage, which can be achieved from the technique, are: Resources can be allocated and planned quite easily for example staff planning, budget estimation and so on. Directly identifies the interrelationship between the different activities and the task. It can be stated that it is a good communication tool relating to planning and good communication (Weiss, Newell and Swan 2017). Techniques The techniques, which can be used by the project manager in order to execute the processing of a complex project, are stated below: Understanding the complex scenario: If there is an organizational complexity due to the factor of the number of secondary committees, the project manager must deal with it. This would directly reduce the number of background documents and presentation, which has to be prepared by the member of the team. In some cases, the number of approval that is needed in the execution phase can be reduced also. Embracing whatever complexity exists: Sometimes within the framework of the project management which is complex unpredictability can lead to opening of new opportunity. The project manager should be able to take the opportunity at the right time that would be beneficial for the organization. Identification of the expert: The project manager responsible for the overall working of a project as well as take into consideration the risk factors. When there is any sort of risk, which is exposed into the project it is the duty of the project manager to get the right expert who could deal with the problem and resolve the problem. Reduction of the complexity: In the cases of the project being declared as complex, it should be the role of the project manager to reduce the complexity of the project. There can be different measures, which can be implemented which could reduce the complexity related to the project (Ahern, Leavy and Byrne 2014). Project Cases Case study 1: ICT Household statistics The main aspect of the CS case study is to provide technical assistance, which can enhance the capacity of the national statistical system, which can produce ICT statistics. This also enhances the awareness between the policy makers regarding the importance of the ICT statistics in the concept of monitoring and evaluation. This can project can be stated as a complex project which includes many stakeholders (Fleming and Koppelman 2016). Argument Different beneficiary countries took advantage of the concept. This concept was introduced to collect data related to the ICT Household statistics. The concept helped in the increase of the availability of the statistics and increase in the reply to the ITU questionnaires. Deployment of video conference The project aims to invite different representatives of the CIS region to take active part to directly implement the process of video conference. This project would be incorporating high level of decision making in different countries. This coordinate the policies related to productivity, development and governance. Argument The project was a huge success with successful implementation of the concept of video conference in the following countries. Republic of Armenia Republic of Moldova Russian federation Kyrgyz Republic (Ahern, Leavy and Byrne 2014) Case study 3: Natural disaster early warning system In this project, the main emphasis was to prevent the natural disaster by means of implementing an early warning system. This would be directly incorporating information dissemination and public safety. Argument In this project, there can be three stages of implementation, which are: Identification of the stakeholders including the local level scenario Identification of the location of the project Identification of the suitable premises where the project can be implemented and started (Schwalbe 2015). Conclusion The report can be concluded on a note that a complex project has many factors, which are involved into it. Taking into consideration, a complex project the project manager has some vital tasks. Few of the factors which are involved in the concept is the pressure form the stakeholders, the budget constant and the time framework of the project. It can be stated that a project cannot be easily be defined as a complex project, the main factors which involve in a project being complex Is that it expands to a bigger area which comprise of difficult in the factor of budgeting and timing. References Ahern, T., Leavy, B. and Byrne, P.J., 2014. Complex project management as complex problem solving: A distributed knowledge management perspective.International Journal of Project Management,32(8), pp.1371-1381. Ahern, T., Leavy, B. and Byrne, P.J., 2014. Complex project management as complex problem solving: A distributed knowledge management perspective.International Journal of Project Management,32(8), pp.1371-1381. Fleming, Q.W. and Koppelman, J.M., 2016, December. Earned value project management. Project Management Institute. Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H.R., 2017.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Kerzner, H., 2017.Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. John Wiley Sons. Kerzner, H., 2017.Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. John Wiley Sons. Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016.Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley Sons. Ramazani, J. and Jergeas, G., 2015. Project managers and the journey from good to great: The benefits of investment in project management training and education.International Journal of Project Management,33(1), pp.41-52. Schwalbe, K., 2015.Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Serra, C.E.M. and Kunc, M., 2015. Benefits realisation management and its influence on project success and on the execution of business strategies.International Journal of Project Management,33(1), pp.53-66. Turner, R., 2016.Gower handbook of project management. Routledge. Walker, A., 2015.Project management in construction. John Wiley Sons. Weiss, J., Newell, S. and Swan, J., 2017, January. Introduction to IT and project management minitrack. InProceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. De Leoz, G. and Petter, S., 2014. Examining the moderating effects of knowledge management enablers on IT project team performance. In20th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2014. Association for Information Systems. Lientz, B. and Rea, K., 2016.Breakthrough technology project management. Rout

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Effects of globalization and increased modernity on indigenous and Native Populations across the World

Introduction It is undoubtedly clear that globalization is one of the hotly debated topics over the past century. Many scholars, and researchers alike, equate this increased debate to the tremendous impacts that have resulted from globalization.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of globalization and increased modernity on indigenous and Native Populations across the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Various cultures and countries have been able to respond differently to globalization and the myriad of effects that come with it. In this paper, the major focus is going to be on assessing the impact of globalization and increased modernity throughout the world—with a special case study on Singapore. However, in doing so, other related countries—especially those in Asia that have contributed to Singapore’s globalization in one way or another—will also be mentioned. But before we delve further into highlighting these issues, what do we really mean when we talk of globalization? Preliminarily, Streeten (1998) asserts that â€Å"globalization is transforming trade, finance, employment, migration, technology, communications, the environment, social systems, ways of living, cultures, and patterns of governance.† In essence, his definition is hugely pegged on the concept of liberalization due to the tearing down of economic market barriers. Moreover, Goyal (2006, p.1) says that â€Å"the term Globalization refers to the integration of economies of the world through uninhibited trade and financial flows, as also through mutual exchange of technology and knowledge.† This definition is additionally supported by Britton (2010) who affirms that, in Globalization, barriers to trade are vehemently broken down so as to pave way for reduced capital controls and the cutting down of transportation costs. In turn, this promotes efficacy of economic markets and smooth running of trade. It is inherent to note that increased modernity mostly comes as a result of endeavors such as globalization and industrialization.Advertising Looking for essay on anthropology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Essentially, globalization in Singapore did not just begin recently; its roots can be traced back to the early years of industrial revolution where social, political and economic changes were taking place across Asia, Europe and as well as other parts of the world (Koh, 2010, p.21-23). From that time up to now, globalization in Singapore has witnessed immense revolution; taking a lot of economic twists and turns to make it the vital business force it is today (Amaldas, 2009, p.982-983). All these are embodied in the circumspect discussions done below. Social, Political, and Cultural Impacts of Globalization and Increased Modernity on Populations across the World—Case Study on Singapore Cau ses of Globalization and Increased Modernity Fundamentally, there are many factors that have catalyzed the evolution of globalization in Singapore. These can, however, be scholarly summarized under the umbrella of three factors namely: technological, economic and sociopolitical factors. Starting with the technological factors, it is notable that there are innumerable technologies that have propelled Globalization. However, the inception of the internet is considered as the most important of them all based on the fact that many other technologies used today sprouted from it. In relations to this, Britton (2010) asserts that since the creation of the Internet in 1973 by the United States defense advanced research projects agency (DARPA); there has been an escalated growth of globalization across the world—including countries in Asia like Singapore. Regarding economic factors, Britton (2010) articulates that the formation of institutions like banks, diversification of products a s well as services and financial market revolutions (among many other economic factors) have importantly provided a framework both national and international commerce. In effect, this has facilitated the advancement of Globalization (Velayutham, 2007, p.20-25). More specifically, Amaldas (2009, p.985) states that the â€Å"synchronization of local financial regulations and policies with international standards† is a key reason for the increased modernity in Singapore.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of globalization and increased modernity on indigenous and Native Populations across the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, sociopolitical factors basically refer to both social and political contributors to globalization. According to Shuja (2001), the constant worldwide shifts in sociopolitical set-ups of countries, regions or even continents have enormously steered globalization to its c urrent course. Amaldas (2009, p.984-985) explicates this by citing the good democracy in Singapore which has encouraged good sociopolitical relations within the country. As a result of the peaceful coexistence of social and political facets in Singapore, the advancement of globalization has been hugely fuelled as opposed to countries such as Russia where the opposite scenario limits progress. So how have these factors impacted the populations in Singapore? As partly aforementioned, globalization has impacted greatly on many economies—both for indigenous and native populations. These impacts shift from positive to negative depending on the development level of an economy (Ernst Young, 2011). The analysis below is therefore going to concurrently assess both the positive and negative impacts of globalization in Singapore. It is from these implications that we will be able to know whether the indigenous and native populations in Singapore have benefited or not from globalization . Positive Impacts of globalization and increased Modernity According to Amaldas (2009), globalization has immensely improved the communication systems in Singapore (p.985). This is based on the reported reductions in telecommunication systems due to the constant inception of new communication technologies (p.985-986). Just like in most countries across the world, the internet—through services like email and instant messaging—has resulted in a global ‘explosion’ of communication and information (Britton 2010). Based on the ‘explosion’, people are able to communicate easily and conduct their trade without the telecommunication hiccups that were eminent before the betterment of these communication systems. On top of that, the evolution and use of social media has also greatly improved the economy in Singapore due to better advertisement and marketing schemes that are typical of social media (Amaldas, 2009, 989-990). The removal of travel barrier s as well as the opening of borders, as a result of globalization, is a major contributing factor to the improved economic output in Singapore (Ernst Young, 2011). Essentially, the removal of trade barriers has benefited Singapore it opens us up avenues for them to spread their market tentacles so as to further improve their economic input wile bettering socialization of the natives of the country.Advertising Looking for essay on anthropology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through the increased modernity in Singapore, their marketing has become much better because they can now travel easily to good trading destinations like China, India or even the USA (Velayutham, 2007, p.41-45). To a large extent, the technological advancements that have resulted from Globalization, or the Globalization that have resulted from technological advancements, tend to favor developed economies more than they do in the ones that are developing (Streeten). Essentially, this is based on the fact that most developed economies tend to have fully fledged economic systems that are easily augmented by better technologies. This is the major reason why Singapore—which is a developed country—has been able to greatly benefit from technological advancements. In essence, natives of Singapore tend to have more access to better services and facilities in the country than the immigrants. For this reason, these natives get to enjoy the technologies more than the immigrants. H owever, on a general level, globalized technologies, if used appropriately, can be of immense help to both immigrants and natives. Explicatively, Britton (2010) notes that technologies like the Internet make it easy for access to certain goods and services thus propelling businesses while helping to unify various economies. Crucially, globalization in Singapore has been able to facilitate the development of national, regional and international structures of governance which vital for the growth of economies (Waltz, 1999, p.697). Basic examples here include the European Union, the United Nations, the African Union and the Asian Union, among thousands of other governance factions formed due to Globalization. The greatly progressive democratic leadership in Singapore also stands as an example of how globalization can better a country’s governance (Velayutham, 2007, p.21-25). In 2005, for example, Singapore was able to improve its governance and leadership systems by entering int o the Asia-Middle East Dialogue, the famed Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) signed between Singapore and India and the Shangri-la dialogues, among many others (Amaldas, 2009, p.986). All the above-mentioned dialogues that were purposefully made to help in improve governance in Singapore and the collaborating countries would have not taken place had it not been for globalization. Globalization has significantly led to the creation of job opportunities for more people. A candid perception amongst economists is that the more developed a nation-state is; the more opportunities it offers in terms of employment (Streeten, 1998). This is, in fact, the reason why there has been a substantial increase in the number of people from Asia moving into Singapore in the quest for greener pastures with regards to better working opportunities. An example of these migrants is the Chinese who, according to Amaldas (2009, p.990-992), constitute a large number of the immigrants in Sing apore. The increase in better job opportunities in Singapore is additionally typified by the ever increasing percentages in the familiar trend of rural-urban migration within the country. With globalization, industrialization has strongly emerged in urban centres like Singapore (which, apparently, is the capital city of Singapore). Negative Impacts of Globalization and Increased Modernity One of the major negative effects of globalization and increased modernity is classism. Essentially, classism refers to the social classes formed in a particular place based on social disintegration. In as much as separation of people based on their background or economic potentialities is vital in tailoring methods of improving economies; unfavourable separations (like between natives and immigrants) is very dangerous for the growth of an economy (Streeten, 1998). Shuja (2001) supports this point by saying that â€Å"paradoxically, this globalization, far from creating a homogeneous global societ y, is subjecting societies to a logic of disintegration.† As a result of the disintegration, there is a continued widening of the—already large—gap between the rich and the poor—as is typified in some sections of Singapore. Notably, the current classism is mostly witnessed in form of ethnicity and racialism based on the fact that most global integrations either take place between various counties or regions. In summary of the negative effects of globalization in Singapore, Amaldas (2009, p.985-995), asserts that globalization and increased modernity has encouraged lawlessness, unemployment in some regions, inequalities, terrorism, violence, civil wars, and increased levels of corruption, among many others. Apart from the abovementioned impacts of globalization (both positive and negative); there are several other general ramifications including (but not limited to): encouraging both positive and negative competition amongst various economies, increasing, a nd sometimes reducing, the life expectancy of productive people in the society, change of consumer trends which ultimately affect the success or failure of economies, volatility of markets—especially financial markets like Forex and Stock markets, and the betterment or deterioration of environment—depending on human activity in a place. Recommendations and Conclusion Based on the above implications, it is evidently noteworthy to say that globalization has been a key aspect in the development of Singapore. Nevertheless, relevant steps should be taken to mitigate its questionable (negative) impacts so as to ensure sustainability in its positive progress. Some of the steps/recommendations that have been proposed by various scholars towards the improvement of globalization and its effects are given below. To begin with, the highly diversified nature of global markets calls a lot of rationalization from the people involved in it. Essentially, firms are obligated to make som e critical decisions in order to ensure that their engagement in international businesses does not negatively impact on the domestic markets. Singapore—being a globally-oriented company—should also strive to ensure that it keeps a lid on the interrelations with other global communities (Amaldas, 2009, p.986-988). Moreover, the expansive and far-reaching effects of global crises—like the 2008 global crisis—provided numerous lessons and possible solutions not only to individuals, but to corporations and governments alike. For instance, individuals, corporations and even countries should ensure that they adequately prepare for the plunging of economies (Goyal, 2006, p.1-6). Additionally, proper regulation of domestic banking and financial institutions can be an invaluable solution to solving economic challenges which, in turn, mitigates the melting down of economies (Shuja, 2001). Essentially, this involves the creation of strong financial reserves that can withstand the pressure of shaky economic times. The regulation should not only be on local level but even on the international arena as well. Again, balancing trade-offs of local responsiveness and global integration in Singapore can be done by setting logical business targets; then working towards them (Streeten, 1998). By setting logical targets, the country’s global operations can easily be checked and balanced relevantly. Furthermore, Streeten says that, amidst rationalizing its targets, countries and business entities must ensure that they take a keen note of both domestic and global competitions. By doing this, companies will be assured of not having to slip up against its competitors (Norberg, 2001). As a candid rule, Singapore should asses its potentiality before deciding to expand its horizons. In the assessment, factors like nature of businesses, type of products and services it offers and availability of prospective market, among others, should be duly considered ( Streeten, 1998). For instance, a firm that only has products that is only used in one region should only focus on that region alone since that is the place that will give them maximum outputs. Finally, Singapore must ensure that it has clear guidelines on the strategies that will be used across the country in its globalization endeavors. Without a good plan, the country opens a vista of opportunities for several hazardous possibilities like not being able to calmly contend with the dynamics of globalized markets. Other things that should be balanced include: standardization against adaptation, concentration against dispersion and autonomy against dependence, among many others (Shuja, 2001). In conclusion, it is worth recapitulating that, just in the same way global alliances play a crucial role in the advancement of nations; these nations also have a consequential role in the advancement or retrogression of international alliances. In other words, both the nation and the globalized endeavors can build or destroy each another. The case of Singapore and globalization interrelate and influence each other typify this symbiotic relationship. It is therefore important that caution is taken so that neither of the two oversteps each other’s boundaries in the quest for development and competitive advantage sustainability. It is only through this that both globalization and progress can be furthered while their challenges are mitigated in Singapore and other parts of the world as well. References Amaldas, M. (2009). The Management of Globalization in Singapore: Twentieth Century Lessons for the Early Decades of the New Century. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 1: 982-1002. Britton, S. (2010). The impact of globalization and its consequences for the individual society. Web. Ernst Young. Singapore takes third spot on globalization index. Web. Goyal, K. A. (2006). Impact of globalization on developing countries (with special reference to India). International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 5: 1-6. Koh, A. (2010). Tactical Globalization: Learning from the Singapore Experiment. New York: Peter Lang. Norberg, J. (2001). In defense of global capitalism. (Translation: Roger Tanner). Stockholm: Timbro. Shuja, S. M. (2001). Coping with globalization. Web. Streeten, P. (1998). Globalization: threat or opportunity? Web. Velayutham, S. (2007). Responding to globalization: nation, culture and identity in Singapore. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Waltz, K. (1999). Globalization and governance. PS: Political Science and Politics, 32, (4), p.693-700. This essay on Effects of globalization and increased modernity on indigenous and Native Populations across the World was written and submitted by user Annabella Buckner to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

More Devices More Problems Professor Ramos Blog

More Devices More Problems One day while we were visiting the local Carl’s Jr. my 5-year-old son and I were at the outdoor playground. He was having a blast going in and out of the bubble tubes and sliding down the slide, when about 10 minutes had past, he asked if he could use my phone because he was bored. I had told him to try using his imagination and pretend he was exploring a mystic cave or flying in an alien spacecraft. He responded back by telling me he did not know how to use his imagination. Have people ever thought that excessive screen time could be impairing their children? Could it be setting them up for a life of addiction to digital devices before they are even faced with peer pressure from their friends? Psychotherapist Amy Morin observes that â€Å"without adult, guidance most of our children will spend most of their waking hours behind a screen† (Morin 1). Introducing to children at an early age about time management with their screens, communication between parents, or guardia n to insure ground rules for limits on screen time are met and practiced, also setting up other activities for them to do while they are home will help their children avoid the negative effects of excessive screen time. There is much information about excessive screen time and the damaging effects to children’s health and well-being that it is hard to know what is correct and what is not. Before there where iPhones, Androids, tablets, and computers, there was the good old fashion boob tube, I remember being told by my parents â€Å"don’t sit to close or you will go blind† and â€Å" don’t watch too much TV or it will rot your brain.† There have been several screen time issues that have come up in today’s digital world such as addiction due to excessive screen use. What society needs to do is ask what is excessive, and how do people determine what is too much. Occupational therapist Krista Huerta says, â€Å"excessive is when it takes over the everyday activities that kids should be engaged in, like playing, talking with other kids, reading, coloring, spending time with family, playing on playground equipment† (Wegner 152). Excessive use of screens cou ld potentially lead to a multitude of health problems including but not limited to lack of social skills, â€Å"text neck† and addiction to screen devices. Trina Hinkley states in her research journal that, â€Å"social skills are intrinsic to children’s psychosocial well-being. Specifically, young children’s social skills are an important precursor in their development of school readiness.† (Hinkley 2). Orthopedic surgeon of 20 years Dr. Kamshad explains â€Å"while on handheld devices children stooped-shoulders, chin-forward posture known as â€Å"text neck,† can put up to 60 pounds of pressure on the spine, leading to chronic neck and lower back pain† (Kragen 1). Excessive screen time I believe is the leading problem to digital device addiction. Mariano Choliz list in his journal â€Å"Mobile Phone Addiction† that, â€Å"some of the most characteristics symptoms of dependence were the following: (a) excessive use: (b) problem with parents associated with excessive use: (c) interference with other school or personal activities: (d) gradual increase in mobile phone use to obtain the same level of satisfaction: e) emotional alterations when phone is impeded.† He also states that the uncontrolled, inappropriate or excessive use of screen devices can give rise to social, behavioral and affective problems† (Choliz 373). Coming up with a clear-cut solution might seem hopeless, but all is not lost. The America Academy of Pediatrics recommends ways to limiting screen time and creating a family media plan which is available on their web site (Children and Media Tips). Setting time limits is an excellent way to lower the amount of time your child will spend on their digital devices. Using a timer or an app that sets limits on screen time is a good choice. Martin Kutscher, MD writes in his book â€Å"Try to create a positive attitude towards the timer. It is not to be used for punishment; rather, to announce that it is time to move on to the next activity† (Kutscher and Rosin 41). Parents need to be a good role model for their children. Roberta Ashby, a pediatrician with Aurora Health Centers says â€Å"Parents who want to limit screen time need to remember that it’s important to model screen-free behavior themselves. As in most things with parenting, parents should lead by example† ( Wegner 152). Once these two key points are set, now it is time to introduce most importantly what I believe to be a solution worth trying. Dr. Amy Morin suggest â€Å"adding other activities into your child’s daily routine that involve the whole family such as reading books, coloring and playing board games, also encourage outdoor physical activities like going for short walks, playing tag, chores, and playing catch† (Morin 3). This will help enforce time away from screens and be beneficial for children physically and socially. Consider the benefits of limiting screen time through other activities that do not involve digital devices. Children have less chance of becoming addicted to their digital devices and are more likely to form good habits that will benefit them. Involving one’s shelf in their activities will form stronger bonds and that child will have a better relationship with their parents and their siblings. In Hatice Kara’s current study she finds that â€Å"screen free week resulted in families recognizing the importance of family-child interaction, that their children are happier when they spend time with them† (Kara 100). According to the negative hype surrounding digital devices â€Å"parents are panicked and wonder if they should pull the plug on their child’s devices† (Coghlan 27), but could completely limiting children from technology be damaging to their education? In â€Å"Digital Kids by Martin Kutscher, MD he agrees that â€Å"there are myriad of unbelievable benefits that we can derive from digital technology. It’s fun, provides limitless news, intellectual thought, art, entertainment, educational apps, and instant communication allowing people to work together around the globe† (Kutscher and Rosin 58). The use of digital devices has a vast amount of benefits that parents would not want their children to miss out on. Digital devices are the new learning tool and the more acquainted our children are with them the better off they will be. Inconclusion as stated in Hinkley’s journal â€Å"research has shown that parents are largely unconcerned about their children’s physical activity and screen time behaviors and report multiple reasons to maintain current behaviors† (Hinkley 9). For those parents who are concern and that are worried about their children’s digital device addiction, excessive scree time seems to be a hot topic amongst them. Parents are questioning about how much time should young children be aloud each day on their digital devices and what can be done as a parent to ensure that their child’s screen time does not have any damaging effects to their health? Limiting time that your child spends on their digital devices, ensure that parents are on the same page about being good role models, and most important implementing other activities that do not involve digital screens is a good start on the right path for happy, healthier children. Annotated Bibliography American Academy of Pediatrics. â€Å"Children and Media Tips from American Academy of Pediatrics† May 20, 2018. Accessed June 19, 2019 Chang, Fong-Ching, et al. â€Å"Computer/Mobile Device Screen Time of Children and Their Eye Care Behavior: The Roles of Risk Perception and Parenting.† Cyber Psychology, Behavior Social Networking, vol. 21, no. 3, Mar. 2018, pp. 179–186. This study compared the use of computer and mobile devices with eye care behavior of children and examined the roles of risk perception and parental practices. Studies have shown that excessive screen time has a negative impact on ocular health. Studies as such can be used to show that problems can arise with the over usage of screens in young children, which I will introduce in my proposal. This study was funded by a research grant from the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology. Dr. Fong-Ching Chang is from the Department of Health Promotion and Health Education which leave to believe that this a reliable source of information. Choliz, Mariano. â€Å"Mobile Phone Addiction: A Point of Issue.† Addiction, vol. 105, no. 2, Feb. 2010, pp. 373–374 Coghlan, Andy. â€Å"Can Too Much Screen Time Harm Children?† New Scientist, vol. 240, no. 3198, Oct. 2018, p. 27 Hinkley, Trina, et al. â€Å"Cross Sectional Associations of Screen Time and Outdoor Play with Social Skills in Preschool Children.† PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 4, Apr. 2018, pp. 1–15. Kara, Hatice Gà ¶zde Ertà ¼rk. â€Å"A Case Study on Reducing Children’s Screen Time: The Project of Screen Free Week.† World Journal of Education, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2018, pp. 100–110. This was a case study aimed at reducing children’s screen time. The goal was to direct children to alternate activities within a week period by applying a week without digital screens. Alternative means to entertain children and ideas to evolve the development of family-child interaction is an essential part of my paper. Incorporating such ideas will help persuade the reader evaluate their decision on how to manage screen time. The was a peered reviewed journal article. Kamenetz, Anya. The Art of Screen Time: How Your Family Can Balance Digital Media and Real Life. Perseus Books Cambridge, MA, USA  ©2018. An evidence based, non-panic guide to the world of kids and their screens and what to do about it. The Author takes a refreshing practical look at the subject and has done hundreds of surveys of parents on their practices and ideas. Digital parenting and ways to go about it correctly is the meat and potatoes of my analysis. Negativities of my solutions will come from this parental guide such the do’s and the don’ts. Anya Kamenetz is an American author on several books about education and lead education blogger at NPR. Her alma mater was Yale college and she has several notable works including â€Å"The Test: Why Our Schools are Obsessed with Standardized Testing†. I believe that this author work is worth noting and a good source for my paper. Kragen, Pam. â€Å"Family Aims to End ‘Text Neck’ in Kids.† San Diego Union-Tribune, (CA), 20 Nov. 2015. Kutscher, Martin L., and Natalie Rosin. Digital Kids: How to Balance Screen Time, and Why It Matters. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2016. EBSCOhost. A parental guide for today’s families, that struggle with excessive digital media usage. This book contains handy information to help understand and prevent excessive internet use that negatively impacts family life, education, behavior and even physical health. Key ideas written will be integrated into my proposal to support my beliefs that screen time should be used in moderation, Martin L. Kutscher, MD take us into an age of digital families through his own experiences with keen analysis of neurological, psychological and educational research. Morin, Amy. â€Å"10 Strategies to Limit Your Teen’s Screen Time† January 06, 2019. Accessed June 19, 2019. Sharkins, Kimberly, et al. â€Å"Preschool Children’s Exposure to Media, Technology, and Screen Time: Perspectives of Caregivers from Three Early Childcare Settings.† Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 44, no. 5, Sept. 2016, pp. 437–444. A look at young children being increasingly exposed to MeTS at home and in schools. This study viewed opinions of parents and teachers of preschool aged children from three diverse centers and examined Media technology and screen time usage across the varying centers and sociodemographic strata. Recommendations explored in this study will give me guidance in what to introduce as solutions in my paper by looking at the advantages and disadvantages of today’s technology. Kimberly Sharkins has a Ph. D. and is the Director of Early Learning at Montgomery Public School District. Her skills and expertise include professional development, early childhood education, and social emotional development. This study was posted as a scholarly journal convincing me that this a reliable source. Wegner, Amanda N. â€Å"Excessive: How Screen Time Can Impact a Child’s Development.† At the Lake, Summer 2018, p. 152.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Incentive Plans Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Incentive Plans Paper - Essay Example It operates in several countries and explores natural products from six continents. â€Å"ExxonMobil’s asset base is large, geographically diverse, and economically robust across a range of business environments. The company holds exploration and production acreage in 36 countries and production operations in 24 countries around the world.† (Company profile: Upstream, 2007). Attractive incentive and compensation plans are essential for attaining company targets and retaining qualified executives and employees. Appropriate and adequate incentive plans, if properly implemented, will motivate employees and will increase productivity. â€Å"The right incentive plan properly implemented can motivate employees, increase productivity and allow the employer to differentiate pay given to high performers.† (Performance plans: Performance based incentive plans, 2007). Managers have developed performance measurement tools and assess the successful decision making variables which is crucial to the organizational objective. Performance is evaluated individually to reward individual performance. In an organization, performance can be of both individual as well as corporate. ExxonMobil offers performance based rewards on attaining individual responsibility. Individual performance is the ability of the executives to implement business plans and to meet unanticipated events towards the objective of organization. ExxonMobil provides base compensation for all executives, including the CEO. ExxonMobils compensation plan is designed in such a way that it rewards and motivates the executives which helps in retaining the best talents in the organization. The fact that success of an organization depends on developing, motivating and retaining best talents who have the skills, abilities and expertise to lead a complex global organization. ExxonMobil is proved to be successful in their incentive plans which are designed to motivate, develop and retain